Snakes and Ladders in Educational Systems: Access to Higher Education for Second-Generation Turks in Europe

Maurice Crul in the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies (2013).
Based on the first international standardised survey on the second generation in Europe, TIES , Crul compares the school trajectories of youth from the same origin group (parents born in Turkey), with the same starting position (born in Europe) and the same socioeconomic status (parents with only modest educational credentials) in six European countries. The differences between countries are substantial. The opportunity to enter higher education is seven times greater in the highest-performing country than in the lowest. These differences can be explained by the institutional arrangements in education in interaction with the available family resources. The article highlights the importance of the oft-neglected national school context.

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