Comparative integration context theory: participation and belonging in new diverse European cities

Ethnic Racial Studies 2010, Maurice Crul and Jens Schneider. Drawing upon results from the TIES survey on the second generation in eight European countries the authors propose a new perspective on integration or assimilation. The proposed comparative integration context theory argues that participation in social organizations and belonging to local communities across European cities is strongly dependent on the integration context. Differences in integration contexts include institutional arrangements in education, the labour market, housing, religion and legislation.

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