Researchers' pages

Maurice Crul

Maurice Crul is a Professor at the Free University in Amsterdam and the Erasmus University in Rotterdam. He is the international chair of IMISCOE, a network of excellence that includes 38 research institutes in the fields of migration and diversity in 18 European countries: In the last twenty years he mostly worked on the topic of education and children of immigrants, first within the Dutch context and in the last ten years in a comparative European and transatlantic context.

Maurice Crul coordinated the international TIES project (The Integration of the European Second generation) which involved partners in eight European countries. The core part of the TIES project is a standardized survey among almost 10.000 respondents (second generation Turkish, former Yugoslavian and Moroccan youth). The idea behind TIES was to compare the same ethnic group with the same starting position in different national integration contexts.

Next to coordinating the TIES project he was also one of the principal investigators of the transatlantic project ‘Children of Immigrants in School’: With support of the Russell Sage Foundation in New York, Maurice Crul together with his American colleague John Mollenkopf recently published The Changing Face of World Cities. The second generation in Europe and the US, comparing second generation youth in Europe and US based on three surveys (TIES, IMMLA and ISGMNY).
The TIES project findings revealed that a sizeable group of second generation youth is either following a higher education study or already has a diploma of higher education. This finding was the starting point of a new international project called ELITES: Pathways to Success.


  • M. Crul (2015), Super-diversity vs Assimilation: How complex diversity in majority-minority cities challenges the assumptions of assimilation. Journal Ethnic and Racial Studies
  • M. Crul (2015), Is education the Pathway to Success. Second generation Turkish professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and the Netherlands. European Journal of Education, Special Issue: Education and Social Transformation, Volume 50, 3, 325–339.
  • Schneider, J. and M. Crul, (Eds.) New Diversities, Volume 16, No. 1, 2014 Social Mobility and Identity Formation. Göttingen: Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity
  • M. Crul and J. Schneider (2013), Second Generation Migrants: Europe and the United States. In: The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration. Ed. I. Nes. London: Blackwell Publishing.
  • M. Crul, J. Schneider and F. Lelie (2013), Super-diversity. A New Perspective on Integration. Amsterdam: Free University Press.
  • M. Crul, J. Holdaway, H. De Valk, N. Fuentes and M. Zaal (2013), Education the Children of Immigrants in Old and New Amsterdam. The Children of Immigrants at School. A Comparative Look at Integration in the United States and Europe. Eds. R. Alba and J. Holdaway. New York: New York University Press.
  • Crul, M. (2013), Snakes and Ladders in Educational Systems. Access to Higher Education for second Generation Turks in Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 39, 9, 1383-1401.
  • M. Crul, J, Schneider and F. Lelie (2012), The European Second Generation Compared
    Does the Integration Context Matter? Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. To see the book in Open Access click here
  • M. Crul and J. Mollenkopf (2012) The Changing Face of World Cities. New York: Russell Sage Foundation
  • J. Schneider and M. Crul (2012) Theorising Integration and Assimilation. London: Routledge.
  • M. Crul (2010) How do educational systems integrate? Integration of second-generation Turks in four different institutional settings. In: The New Dimensions of Diversity: The Children of Immigrants in North America and Western Europe. Eds. R. Alba and M. Waters. New York: New York University Press.
  • Crul, M. and J. Schneider (2010) Comparative Context Integration Theory. Participation and belong in Europe’s large cities. Journal Ethnic and Racial studies, 34, 4, pp. 1249-1268.
  • J. Schneider and M. Crul (Eds.), Special Issue of the Journal Ethnic and Racial studies: Theorising Integration and Assimilation, 2010, Volume 34, Nr. 4.
  • J. Schneider and M. Crul (2010), New insights into assimilation and integration theory. Journal Ethnic and Racial studies, 34, 4, pp 1134 -1148.
  • Crul, M. (2010) The progress in the educational position of children of Turkish descent in the Netherlands. A historic overview. International Journal on Multicultural Societies, 11, 2, pp 175 -195.
  • J. Holdaway, M. Crul, and C. Roberts (Eds.), Special Issue of Teachers College Record, Cross-National Comparison of Provision and Outcomes for the Education of the Second Generation, 2009, Volume 111, 6.
  • J. Holdaway, M. Crul and C. Roberts (2009) Cross-National Comparison and Outcomes for Education of the Second Generation. Teachers College Records, 111, pp. 1381-1403.
  • Crul, M. and J. Holdaway (2009) Children of Immigrants in Schools in New York and Amsterdam.
    The factors shaping attainment. Teachers College Records, 111, 6, pp. 1476-1507.
  • Crul, M. and J. Schneider (2009). Children of Turkish immigrants in Germany and the Netherlands. The impact of differences in vocational and academic tracking systems. Teachers College Records, 111, 6, pp.1508-1527.
    3. M.Crul, A. Pasztor, F. Lelie and P. Schnell (2009) Valkuilen en springplanken in het onderwijs. Den Haag: NICIS.
  • M. Crul and L. Heering (2008) The position of the Turkish and Moroccan second generation in Amsterdam and Rotterdam. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  • M. Crul, A. Pasztor and F. Lelie (2008) De tweede generatie. Last of kapitaal voor de stad. Den Haag: NICIS.
  • Crul, M. (Ed.), Special Issue Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, The Second generation in Europe,
    2007, Volume 33, nr7.
  • M. Thomson and M. Crul (2007) The Second Generation in Europe and the United States: How is the Transatlantic Debate Relevant for Further Research on the European Second Generation?, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33:7, pp. 1025 – 1041.
  • Crul, M. (Ed.). Special Issue International Migration Review, The Future of the Second Generation: The Integration of Migrant Youth in Six European Countries, 2003 Volume 37, nr.4.
  • Crul, M and H. Vermeulen, (2003). The second generation in Europe. Introduction to the special issue. International Migration Review, 37, 4, pp. 965-986.